Transport for London (TfL) is to investigate what it describes as “the next generation of road user charging”, which could include a pay-per-mile charge to reflect emissions and congestion.

The plans were revealed in London mayor Sadiq Khan’s first Transport Strategy, designed to reduce the capital’s dependency on cars.

Details of the proposed scheme are slim, but the mayor’s office said TfL “could harness new technology to better reflect distance, time, emissions, road danger and other factors in an integrated way. This could include a single ‘per mile’ charge which takes into account both congestion and emissions objectives.”

It added that TfL would continue to review existing and planned road charging schemes, such as the Congestion Charge.

Other proposals include more vehicle-free zones and car-free days, restricted car parking in new developments and supporting car clubs for London residents.

“As London’s population is set to increase beyond 10 million, our future health and prosperity is more and more dependent on us reducing our reliance on cars,” said Khan.

“We have to be ambitious in changing how our city works. While there will be five million additional journeys being made across our transport network by 2041, at the same time we’re setting ourselves a bold target of reducing car journeys by 3 million every day.

“In launching my first Transport Strategy today, I’ll be setting out wide-ranging plans for making cycling and walking safe and accessible in every neighbourhood, transforming our bus network, and ensuring new housing is built not around car use, but designed directly around access to public transport links instead.

“We have to make not using your car the affordable, safest and most convenient option for Londoners going about their daily lives. This is not only essential for dealing with congestion as London grows, but crucial for reducing our toxic air pollution, and improving the health of all Londoners.”